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Tectonically, it corresponds to the left bank of the crystal shield.

Tectonically, it corresponds to the left bank of the crystal shield.

The surface layers are formed in the west mainly by sand, and in the east by loess deposits. This contributes to the widespread development of spring formation in the Dnieper lowlands. In the east, the Dnieper valley gradually turns into the Poltava plain, which has a flat and hilly surface with valleys and gullies.

From the southwest to the Ukrainian Carpathians adjoins part of the Middle Danube Lowland – Transcarpathian Lowland. It is slightly sloping to the southwest and has an absolute height of 120-105 m. The surface of the Transcarpathian lowland is formed by a flat terraced valley of the Tisza River with its tributaries.

The Black Sea lowland covers a wide strip in the south of Ukraine along the Black and Azov Seas, as well as the plain Crimea. At the base of the lowland lies the Black Sea basin and the Scythian plate. Absolute heights vary here from 210-240 m in the west to 50-80 m in the east. Some parts of the surface lie below sea level. Thus, the Khadzhibeysky estuary is 13 m, Kuyalnytsky – 5 m. The surface of the Black Sea lowland is composed of sedimentary rocks of marine origin, and therefore is very dissected by deep (up to 100 m) river valleys and gullies.

An integral part of the Black Sea lowlands is the North Crimean plain, the surface of which gradually decreases to Sivash. Its absolute heights do not exceed 40 m above sea level. Within the country, they form an almost continuous strip that stretches across the territory from northwest to southeast. They differ in tectonic structures, surface shapes, absolute heights.

Heights. In the central part of Ukraine is the largest of the hills – Dnieper, they lie between the Dnieper and Southern Bug. In its eastern part there is a kind of area – Kaniv Mountains with heights of 230 m. Here is the grave of the genius of the Ukrainian people Taras Shevchenko.

The formation of the hill is associated with the protrusions of the Ukrainian crystal shield, which are covered from above by small areas of forest rocks. In the north and south, the Dnieper Upland gradually turns into lowlands.

The Dnieper Upland has a slightly hilly surface with average heights of 220-240 m. The highest point is 321 m. Only the eastern edge of the hill adjacent to the Dnieper is deeply dissected. Landslides often occur along river valleys on the Dnieper Upland, and ancient crystalline rocks come to the surface in places.

In the south-east of the country is the Azov Upland with heights of 150-300 m. Here, crystalline rocks come to the surface, forming elevations, which are popularly called "graves" (Belmak-Mohyla, 324 m). Tectonically, it corresponds to the left bank of the crystal shield. In the river valleys, granites are sometimes exposed, and on the tops there are forests.

Podilska and Volynska uplands are located in the western part of Ukraine, their surfaces are very dissected. They are divided by the plain of Maly Polissya. Absolute heights are 320-350 m (Kamula, 471 m). On the Volyn upland the Mizotsky ridge stands out, on the Podilska upland there are separate massifs-mountains: Kremenets mountains, Gologory, Roztochchya, Opillya, Tovtry (Medobory).

Podolsk Upland is one of the highest parts of the entire Eastern European plain. Its absolute heights exceed 400 m. The relief of Podillya is very dissected by numerous river valleys, ravines, beams, the depth of which sometimes reaches 150 m. There are separate ridges and ridges of hills within its boundaries. In most parts of the territory are characterized by karst phenomena (dissolution of rocks by surface and groundwater and the formation of cavities, caves, karst funnels).

The Volyn upland rises above the plain of Maly Polissya by an average of 30-50 m. The absolute marks on it vary from 200 to 300 m.

In the east of Ukraine there is the Donetsk Upland, its average heights are 75-300 m (the highest point is Mohyla Mechetna, 367 m). Its highest watershed in the southeast is called the Donetsk ridge. It is a remnant of the mountains of the Hercynian mountain-building stage. Now it is a hilly hill, formed by several strands composed of Cretaceous rocks.

The Middle Russian Upland enters the territory of Ukraine with southwestern spurs. Its height within our country does not exceed 236 m. There are many ravines, beams. Its tectonic base is the Voronezh massif, within which the crystalline basement of the platform is raised, covered with a small thickness of loose sedimentary deposits (below – chalk, and above – forests). The undulating plateau gradually decreases from 240 to 150 m in the southern and southwestern directions.

On the interfluve of the Prut and Dniester rivers there is a wavy hilly ridge that forms the Khotyn Upland. From southwest to northeast, the hill stretches for 50 km, with average heights of 350-400 m; here is the highest point of the plain part of Ukraine – the town of Byrd (515 m). The height is composed of limestone, clay, gypsum, its surface is divided by tributaries of the Prut and Dniester rivers, which have deep valleys with steep slopes. Most of the hill is covered with beech and oak-hornbeam forests.

The Donetsk Upland adjoins the northern edge of the Azov Upland. In the north-east of the territory of Ukraine there are spurs of the Middle Russian Upland.

The plains of Ukraine are favorable for economic activity. Its development is complicated by ravines on the hills and the Black Sea lowlands, swamps of the Polissya lowlands, etc.

It burns. The Ukrainian, or Eastern, Carpathians are part of the larger Carpathian system. These are young medium-altitude mountains formed during alpine folding. Their average heights range from 1200-1600m. The mountains consist of several parallel bands extending from northwest to southeast within Ukraine for 270 km.

Mountain ranges have a stretch close to the submeridional and are called the Outer Carpathians (Beskids, Gorgans and Pokutsko-Bukovynian Carpathians), Vododelno-Verkhovyna Carpathians, Polonynsko-Chornohirsky ridge, Rakhiv and Chivchyn mountains. The highest part of the Ukrainian Carpathians is the Chornohora massif, where in addition to Hoverla (2061 m) there are five more two-thousanders – Gutin-Tomnatyk (2016), Pip-Ivan (2022), Brebeneskul (2032), Rebra ( 2010), Petros (2020). Convenient passes in the Ukrainian Carpathians are: Uzhotsky, Boretsky, Vyshkivsky, Yablunytsky.

Structurally, the Ukrainian Carpathians correspond to the Carpathian folded region, which belongs to the Alpine-Himalayan folded belt. Their geological structure involves deposits of different ages from Precambrian to anthropogenic, but the most common are Cretaceous and Paleogene. Mostly sandstones, shales, marls. From the ice age there are preserved such landforms as curries and circuses.

The outer edge of the Carpathian folded system is separated from the Eastern European platform by the Pre-Carpathian marginal depression, filled with a thick layer of sedimentary rocks.

Actually, the Carpathians stretch parallel ridges from northwest to southeast. Within their boundaries there are five distinct areas, which is due primarily to the complex tectonic structure.

The Outer or Skib Carpathians rise steeply above the plain of Precarpathia. Their name is due to the fact that the folds are pushed to the plain, and therefore inclined in a northeasterly direction. Because of this, the slopes of the ridges facing the Precarpathians are steep, and the southwestern ones are gentle. Transverse faults divide the Beskids, Gorgan, and Pokut-Bukovynian Carpathians in the Outer Carpathians. The highest point is Sivulya forest (1836 m).

The watershed-Verkhovyna region covers the central lowland part of the Ukrainian Carpathians with low-mountainous relief (absolute heights – 600-700 m). Here is the main indepartment that separates the basins of the Dniester and Tisza.

The Polonyn-Chornohirsky Carpathians cover the inner highest part of the mountains. Flat forestless tops of ridges here are called meadows. Divided by river valleys, they form separate massifs. The highest among them are Svydovets and Chornohora, which show traces of the activity of mountain glaciers that lay here during the glacial era. There are six peaks on the Chornohora massif with a height of over 2000 m.

To the south of Bila Tisa and Cheremosh is the region of Rakhiv and Chivchyn mountains with sharp rocky ridges and traces of Quaternary glaciation. These are the remnants of an ancient mountain range, which was formed in the Hercynian era of mountain building.

The Vyhorlat-Hutyn volcanic ridge, formed by the domes of extinct volcanoes, stretches parallel to the Polonyn-Chornohirsky Carpathians.

The Transcarpathian lowland corresponds to the Transcarpathian lowland, which decreases in the direction of the Tisza basin from 133 to 105 m.

The Crimean mountains occupy the extreme south of the Crimean peninsula. They stretch from west to east for 180 km. There are three mountain ranges: Main with heights of 1200-1500 m, Inner with heights of 400-600 m and Outer with heights of 250-350 m. The slopes of the ridges are asymmetric: southern – steep and steep, northern – gentle. This is due to the erosion of soft rocks in the rock layers, consisting of layers of different hardness.

Long and sloping slopes of the Outer and Inner belts coincide with the direction of occurrence of stable rocks – limestone, steep slopes – a consequence of the destruction of soft rocks – marls and clays. Such asymmetrical landforms are called quests. Between the quest strands as a result of erosion, a decrease was formed.

The main ridge of the Crimean mountains is the highest. It is a continuous chain of flat forestless massifs called yayla ("yayla" in Turkic – summer pasture): Baidarskaya yayla, Ai-Petrynska, Yalta, Nikitskaya, Gurzufskaya, Babugan, Chatyrdag, Demerdzhi, Dovgorukovskaya, Karabi-yaila. On Babugan-Yayla is the highest point of the Crimean mountains – Roman Kosh (1545 m). In the Crimea there are four more peaks with marks over 1500m – Demir-Kapu, Zeitin-Kosh, Kemal-Egerek, Eklizi-Burun. A characteristic feature of the Crimean Mountains, especially the Main Range, where limestone rocks are common, is the presence of various karst landforms. There are very deep abysses, caves. At the bottom of many of them there are underground streams and lakes, which are an important source of food for the rivers of Crimea.

All ridges are deeply dissected by longitudinal and transverse river valleys, which in places have a canyon-like shape.

Istituto Comprensivo di Saonara © 2017
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